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APPLICATION TIPS
(How to Plan, Design and Analyze Taguchi Experiments)

Description of FIVE-PHASE (5P's) Application Process
(Select project that can give you high return on investment. Identify project that can produce the most customer satisfaction. Review warranty and rejection data. Look for a project which can show immediate improvement in cost.)

For additional tips review the following discussions:
Experiment Planning Tips    Experiment Design Tips   Analysis Tips   Presentation Tips   Application Tips


    P1.  Plan  - Arrange for the planning/brainstorming session. If it's your own project, you may consider asking some one else to facilitate. Work as a team when possible. Use common sense principles of working as a team. Decide things by consensus.

 

             Determine:

                           * Evaluation criteria and define a method to combine them

                           * Control factors and their levels.

                           * Interaction (if any)

                           * Noise factors (if any)

                           * Number of samples to be tested.

                           * Experiment logistics.

 

P2. Prescribe - Design experiment & prescribe recipes of the trial conditions. 

                           * Determine the order of running the experiment

                           * Describe noise conditions for testing samples if the design includes an outer array

 

P3. Perform -  Carry out experiments and collect results

                        * Note readings, calculate and record averages if multiple readings of  the same criteria are taken.

                        * Calculate OEC using the formula defined in the planning session.

 

P4. Predict -  Analyze results and Predict performance expected

                        * Determine factor influence (Main Effect)

                        * Identify significant factors (ANOVA)

                        * Determine optimum condition and estimate performance

                        * Calculate confidence interval of optimum performance

                        * Adjust design tolerances based on ANOVA

 

P5. Prove -  Prove and verify predictions by running confirmation tests

                       * Test multiple samples at the optimum condition

                       * Compare the average performance with the confidence interval determined from  DOE

 

Experiment Design Tips

Notations:
3-2LF = Three 2-level factors, 1-4LF = One 4-level factor,
AxB = Interaction between two 2-level factors A and B, etc.
AxB = 4 x 8 => 12 should be read as "Assign factors A to col. 4, B to col. 8, and reserve col. 12 for interaction AxB", etc.

Design solutions for a number of experimental situations are presented below. Using the notations described above, the experimental requirements are first stated, followed by a common experiment design strategy. The design shown are not necessarily unique, alternative solutions may exist. Notations A, B, C, etc. represent factor descriptions.

For most convenient use of the design recommendations, list your factors and interactions by first assigning the character notations to each factor, then selecting the REQUIREMENTS that best match your situation. As always double check your interaction and upgraded columns with the applicable TRIANGULAR TABLE.

Recommended Array Selection and Column Assignments

EXPERIMENT DESIGNS USING STANDARD ARRAYS (no interaction or column upgrading)

  1. REQUIREMENTS: 2-2LF or 3-2LF
    DESIGN: L-4, factors assigned to columns arbitrarily
  2. REQUIREMENTS: 4, 5, 6 or 7 -2LF
    DESIGN: L-8, factors cols. 1, 2, 4 & 6.Remaining columns left empty.
  3. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10 or 11 -2LF, interaction present but ignored
    DESIGN: L-12, assign factors to columns arbitrarily (DO NOT USE L-12 TO STUDY INTERACTION)
  4. REQUIREMENTS: 12, 13, 14 or 15 -2LF
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors to columns arbitrarily
  5. REQUIREMENTS: 16, 17, .... or 31 -2LF
    DESIGN: L-32, assign factors to columns arbitrarily.
  6. REQUIREMENTS: 32, 33, ..... or 63 -2LF
    DESIGN: L-64, assign factors to columns arbitrarily.
  7. REQUIREMENTS: 2, 3 or 4 3LF
    DESIGN: L-9, factors assigned arbitrarily
  8. REQUIREMENTS: 1 or 2-2LF and 2-3LF
    DESIGN: L-9, Dummy treat columns for 2-level factors.
  9. REQUIREMENTS: 1-2LF and 4, 5, 6 or 7 -3LF
    DESIGN: L-18, assign the 2-level factor to col. 1 and all other factors to cols. 2 - 8. (DO NOT USE L-18 TO STUDY INTERACTIONS)
  10. REQUIREMENTS: 2 -2LF(A & B) and 4, 5 or 6 -3LF
    DESIGN: L-18, assign factor A to col. 1, dummy treat and assign factor B to col. 2. Assign other factors to cols. 3 - 8.
  11. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 or 13 -3LF
    DESIGN: L-27, assign factors to columns arbitrarily.
  12. REQUIREMENTS: 3, 4 or 5 -4LF
    DESIGN: Modified L-16, assign factors to columns arbitrarily.
  13. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 7, 8 or 9 -4LF
    DESIGN: Modified L-32, Leave col. 1 empty and assign factors to the other columns arbitrarily.
  14. REQUIREMENTS: 1-2LF and 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 -4LF
    DESIGN: Modified L-32, assign 2-level factor to col. 1 and assign other factors to the remaining columns arbitrarily.

    DESIGNS WITH MULTIPLE INTERACTIONS (dependent and independent pairs)

  15. REQUIREMENTS: 2-2LF(A&B) and AxB
    DESIGN: L-4, factors A in col. 1,B in col. 2 and interaction AxB in col. 3
  16. REQUIREMENTS: 3, 4, 5 or 6 - 2LF and one interaction, AxB
    DESIGN: L-8, factor A in col.1, B in col. 2 and interaction AxB in col. 3. Other 2-level factors in the remaining column.
  17. REQUIREMENTS: 3, 4 or 5 -2LF and two dependent interactions, AxB and BxC
    DESIGN: L-8, Factors A in col. 1, B in col. 2 and C in col. 4, Interactions AxB in col. 3 and BxC in col. 6
  18. REQUIREMENTS: 3 or 4 -2LF and 3 dependent interactions AxB, BxC and CxA
    DESIGN: L-8, Factors A in col. 1, B in col. 2 and C in col. 4. Interactions AxB in col. 3, BxC in col. 6, and CxA in col. 5.
  19. REQUIREMENTS: 4 - 2LF and 3 interactions AxB, AxC and AxD
    DESIGN: L-8, Factors A in col. 1, B in col. 2, C in col. 4 and Din col. 7. Interactions AxB in col. 3 and AxC in col. 5 and AxD in col. 6
  20. REQUIREMENTS: 2-2LF(A&B) and interaction (AxB)
    DESIGN: L-9, assign factors A to col. 1, and reserve cols. 3 & 4 to study interaction between the two 3-level factors, AxB.
  21. REQUIREMENTS: 4 or 5 -2LF and 2 interactions AxB and CxD
    DESIGN: L-16, factor A in col. 1, B in col. 2 and int. AxB in col. 3. Factors C in col. 4, D in col. 8 and int. CxD in col. 12.
  22. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10,.... or 14 -2LF and 1 interaction (AxB)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col2, and AxB to col. 3.
  23. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10,.... or 13 -2LF and 2 interactions (AxB and BxC)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, AxB to col. 3 and BxC to col.6. Assign other factors to the remaining columns.
  24. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10,.... or 13 -2LF and 2 interactions (AxB and AxC)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, AxB to col. 3 and AxC to col.5.
  25. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10,.. or 13 -2LF and 2 interactions (independent, AxB and CxD)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, AxB to col. 3 and CxD to col.12.
  26. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 -2LF and 3 interactions ( AxB, BxC and CxA)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, AxB to col. 3, BxC to col. 6 and CxA to col. 5.
  27. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 -2LF and 3 interactions ( AxB, AxC and AxD)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 7, AxB to col. 3 and AxC to col. 5 and AxD to col. 6.
  28. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 -2LF and 3 interactions ( AxB, AxC and CxD)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, AxB to col. 3 and AxC to col. 5 and CxD to col.12.
  29. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 -2LF and 3 interactions ( AxB, BxC and CxD)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, AxB to col. 3 and BxC to col.6 and CxD to col.12.
  30. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10, 11 or 12 -2LF and 3 interactions ( AxB, CxD and ExF)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 7, F to col. 9, AxB to col. 3, CxD to col.12 and ExF to col. 14.
  31. REQUIREMENTS: 10 or 11 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 4 interactions ( AxB, BxC, CxA and DxE )
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 7 and E to col. 9. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, BxC to col. 6 CxA to col. 5 and DxE to col. 14.
  32. REQUIREMENTS: 10 or 11 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 4 interactions ( AxB, BxC, CxD and ExF )
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 7 and F to col. 9. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, BxC to col. 6 CxD to col. 12 and ExF to col. 14.
  33. REQUIREMENTS: 10 or 11 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 4 interactions ( AxB,AxC, AxD and ExF )
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 7 and F to col. 9. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, AxC to col. 5, AxD to col. 9 and ExF to col. 14.
  34. REQUIREMENTS: 10 or 11 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 4 interactions( AxB,AxC, AxD and AxE )
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8 and E to col. 15. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, AxC to col. 5, AxD to col. 9 and ExF to col. 14.
  35. REQUIREMENTS: 10 or 11 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 4 interactions ( AxB, CxD, ExF and GxH )
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 7, F to col. 9, G to col. 5 and H to col. 10. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, CxD to col.12, ExF to col. 14 and GxH to col. 15.
  36. REQUIREMENTS: 10 -2LF(A,B,C,...J) and 5 interactions ( AxB, CxD, ExF, GxH and IxJ)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 7, F to col. 9, G to col. 5, H to col. 10, I to col. 6 and J to col. 11. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, CxD to col.12 and ExF to col. 14, GxH to col. 15 and IxJ to col13 (Note: the five interacting groups in L-16 are 1x2=>3, 4x8=>12, 7x9=>14, 5x10=>15 and 6x11=>13) .
  37. REQUIREMENTS: 10 -2LF(A,B,C,.. ) and 5 interactions ( AxB, BxC, CxA, DxE and DxF)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 7, E to col. 9 an F to col. 8. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, BxC to col.6, CxA to col. 5, DxE to col. 14 and DxE to col. 15.
  38. REQUIREMENTS: 10 -2LF(A,B,C,.. ) and 5 interactions ( AxB, AxC, AxD, AxE and AxF)
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors A to col. 1, B to col. 2, C to col. 4, D to col. 8, E to col. 10 an F to col. 12. Place interactions AxB to col. 3, AxC to col. 5, AxD to col. 9, AxE to col. 11 and AxF to col. 13.

    MIXED-LEVEL FACTOR DESIGNS (2, 3 and 4-level factors only)

  39. REQUIREMENTS: 4-2LF and 1-4LF(A)
    DESIGN: L-8, assign factor A in col. 1, all other factors in cols. 4, 5, 6 & 7
  40. REQUIREMENTS: 1, 2, or 3 -2LF and 1-4LF(A)
    DESIGN: L-8, assign factor A in col. 1, all other factors in cols. 4, 5, 6 & 7 as appropriate
  41. REQUIREMENTS: 1, 2, 3 or 4 -2LF and 1-3LF(A)
    DESIGN: L-8, assign factor A in col. 1, all other factors in cols. 4, 5, 6 & 7 as appropriate
  42. REQUIREMENTS: 2-2LF(A & B) and 3-3LF (AxB is considered absent)
    DESIGN: L-9 used for COMBINATION DESIGN. Assign the two 2-level factor combinations(3 levels) to any of the four columns of the array.
  43. REQUIREMENTS: 12, 11, 10 ..or 5 -2LF, 1-4LF(A)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade the interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3 to a 4-level columns(1). Assign factor A to col. 1 and the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  44. REQUIREMENTS: 12, 11, 10 ..or 5 -2LF, 1-3LF(A)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade the interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3 to a 4-level columns(1). Dummy treat this 4-level columns to a 3-level (col. 1 ). Assign factor A to col. 1 and the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  45. REQUIREMENTS: 9, 8, 7,..or 5 -2LF, 1-3LF(A) and 1-4LF(B)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade two interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3 and 4 8 12 to two 4-level columns(1 and 4). Dummy treat the first 4-level columns to a 3-level (col. 1 ). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  46. REQUIREMENTS: 9, 8, 7, ..or 2 -2LF, 2-3LF(A & B)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade two interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3 and 4 8 12 to two 4-level columns(1 and 4). Dummy treat the two 4-level columns to 3-level (cols. 1 and 4). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  47. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 -2LF, 2-4LF(A & B) and 1-4LF(C)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade two interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3 and 4 8 12 to two 4-level columns(1and 4). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  48. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 -2LF, 2-3LF(A & B) and 1-4LF(C)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade three interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3, 4 8 12 and 7 9 14, to three 4-level columns(1, 4 and 7). Dummy treat the first two 4-level columns to 3-level (cols. 1 and 4). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and C to col. 7. Assign the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  49. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 -2LF, 1-3LF(A) and 2-4LF(B & C)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade three interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3, 4 8 12 and 7 9 14, to three 4-level columns(1, 4 and 7). Dummy treat the first 4-level column to a 3-level (col. 1 ). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and C to col. 7. Assign the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  50. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 -2LF and 3-4LF(A,B & C)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade three interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3, 4 8 12 and 7 9 14, to three 4-level columns(1, 4 and 7). Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and C to col. 7. Assign the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.
  51. REQUIREMENTS: 6, 5, 4, 3 or 2 -2LF and 3-3LF(A,B & C)
    DESIGN: L-16. Upgrade three interacting groups of cols., 1 2 3, 4 8 12 and 7 9 14, to three 4-level columns(1, 4 and 7). Dummy the upgraded 4-level columns to 3-level columns. Assign factor A to col. 1, B to col. 4 and C to col. 7. Assign the 2-level factors to the remaining columns.

    OUTER ARRAY DESIGN FOR ROBUSTNESS (Static System win noise factors)

  52. REQUIREMENTS: 2-2LF or 3-2LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-4, Noise factors assigned to columns arbitrarily
  53. REQUIREMENTS: 4, 5, 6 or 7 -2LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-8, Noise factors cols. 1, 2, 4 & 6.Remaining columns left empty.
  54. REQUIREMENTS: 8, 9, 10 or 11 -2LF, interaction present but ignored
    DESIGN: L-12, assign factors to columns arbitrarily (DO NOT USE L-12 TO STUDY INTERACTION)
  55. REQUIREMENTS: 12, 13, 14 or 15 -2LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-16, assign factors to columns arbitrarily
  56. REQUIREMENTS: 2, 3 or 4 3LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-9, Noise factors assigned arbitrarily
  57. REQUIREMENTS: 1 or 2-2LF and 2-3LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-9, Dummy treat columns for 2-level Noise factors.
  58. REQUIREMENTS: 1-2LF and 4, 5, 6 or 7 -3LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-18, assign the 2-level Noise factor to col. 1 and all other factors to cols. 2 - 8.
  59. REQUIREMENTS: 2 -2LF(A & B) and 4, 5 or 6 -3LF Noise factors
    DESIGN: L-18, assign factor A to col. 1, dummy treat and assign factor B to col. 2. Assign other factors to cols. 3 - 8.

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    (Look for More Design Tips in Future Updates)

 

 

Application Steps (How to apply the DOE/Taguchi technique):

[For expanded guidelines on experiment planning, follow: Follow Recommended Experiment Planning Steps]

  1. Select Project:  Identify a design optimization or production problem solving project . Define project clearly based on function you intend to improve. For complex systems/process, review subsystems/sub-processes and select activities responsible for the function. Lead if it's your own project, suggest DOE if it's some one else's.
  2. Plan Experiment: Conduct or Arrange the planning/brainstorming session. If it's your own project, you will benefit more if some one else facilitated the session. Determine:
    • Evaluation criteria and establish a scheme to combine them
    • Control factors and their levels.
    • Interaction (if any)
    • Noise factors (if any)
    • Number of samples to be tested.
    • Experiment resources and logistics
  3. Designing experiments: Design experiment & describe trial conditions. Also:
    • Determine the order of running the experiment
    • Describe noise conditions for testing samples if the design includes an outer array
  4. Conduct Experiments: Carry out experiments by selecting the trial condition in random order, and:
    • Note readings, calculate and record averages if multiple readings of the same criteria are taken.
    • Calculate OEC using the formula defined in the planning session.
  5. Analyze Results: Reduce observations (in case of multiple objectives) into results and perform analysis to:
    • Determine factor influence (Main Effect)
    • Identify significant factors (ANOVA)
    • Determine optimum condition and estimate performance
    • Calculate confidence interval of optimum performance
    • Adjust design tolerances based on ANOVA
  6. Confirm Expected Performance: Test one or more samples at the optimum condition to:
    • Establish performance at the optimum condition
    • Compare the average performance with the confidence interval determined from DOE

 

 

Experiment Planning   

BRAINSTORMING FOR TAGUCHI EXPERIMENTS
Brainstorming is an essential step in the Taguchi experimental design. Many issues regarding the scopes and objectives of the experiment are resolved in this planning session:

* Identify factors, levels and derive other pertinent information about
  the experiment, collectively with all  involved in the experiment.

* Develop team effort and achieve the maximum participation from
  the team members.

* Determine all experiment related items by consensus decisions.

WHO SHOULD CONDUCT? - The session should be facilitated by a person who has a good working knowledge of the Taguchi methodologies. Engineers or statisticians dedicated to helping others apply this tool will make better facilitators. The project leader should only facilitate his/her own project only when none is available.

WHO SHOULD HOST THE SESSION? - The team/project leader should host the brainstorming session.

WHO SHOULD ATTEND? - All those who have first-hand knowledge and/or  involvement in the subject under study should be included.  For an engineering design or a manufacturing process, both the design and the manufacturing personnel should attend.  If cost or supplier knowledge are likely factors, then persons from these disciplines should be encouraged to attend (group size permitting).


HOW MANY SHOULD ATTEND? - The more the better.  The upper limit should be around 15.   It can be as low as 2.

WHAT IS THE AGENDA FOR THE SESSION? - The facilitator should guide the group and maintain her own schedule (follow guidelines given below). The meeting agenda need not be published to the participants.


TOPICS OF DISCUSSIONS:
The following topics should be included in the agenda for the brainstorming session.

1. ESTABLISH OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY (What are you after? 2 - 4 hours)
   i.  What is the characteristic of quality?  How do we evaluate the objective?
   ii.. How do we measure the quality characteristic?  What are the units of measurement?
   iii. What are the criteria (attributes) of evaluation for the quality characteristic?
  iv. How to combine criteria of evaluation, when there are more than one (OEC)?
   v. How are the different quality criteria weighted?
   vi. What is the sense of the quality characteristic?  Lower is better, nominal is the best, etc.

2. DETERMINE DESIGN FACTORS AND THEIR LEVELS (1 - 2 hours)
   i. What are all the possible factors?
   ii. Which ones are more important than others (pareto diagram)?
   iii. How many factors should be included in the study?
   iv. How to select levels for the factors?  How many levels?
   v. What is the trade off between levels and factors?

3. "NOISE" VARIABLES of (How to make a robust design? 1/2 hour)
   i. What factors are likely to influence the objective function,but cannot be controlled in real life.
   ii. How can the product under study be made insensitive to the noise factors?
   iii. How are these factors included in the study?

4. INTERACTION STUDIES (Which factors are likely to interact? 1/2 hour)
   i. Which are the factors most likely to interact?
   ii. How many interactions can be included?
   iii. Should we include an interaction or an additional factor?
   iv. Do we need to study the interaction at all?

5. TASK ASSIGNMENT AND DESCRIPTION (Who will do what, how and when? 1/2 hour)
   i. What steps are to be followed in combining all the quality criteria into an OEC?
   ii. What to do with the factors not included in the study?
   iii. How to simulate the experiments to represent the customer/field applications?
   iv. How many repetitions and in what order will the experiments be run?
   v. Who will do what and when? Who will analyze the data?


 Overall Evaluation Criteria (OEC)

Whenever you encounter multiple objectives in your project under study, you will have the option to analyze your results by using performance of one objective at a time, or use the overall evaluation criteria (OEC) obtained by combining all criteria of evaluations into a single index. Follow the procedure for combining different criteria into an OEC if desired. The OEC formulation capability is fully supported by Qualitek-4 software. 

 

 

Analysis of Experimental Results

  • Calculate Factor Average Effects
    • Study factor influences
    • Determine optimum condition
    • Compute expected performance
    • Find out if interaction is present
  • Compute ANOVA Statistics
    • Determine relative influence of factors to the variation of results
    • Pool factors and interaction that are not significant
    • determine if interaction is significant
    • Calculate confidence interval (main effect and optimum performance)
  • Estimate Savings Expected
    • Determine improvement expected
    • Calculated savings expected due to reduce variation
 
 

Project Presentation  

Depending on your audience, organize and present your findings in three levels:

Level I: Management Briefing
Your presentation should include what you did, why you did it, what you found, and what it is it going to be worth in terms of dollars:

  • Describe project and its current performance
  • Talk about the improvement
  • Show a graph representing the improvement (Normal distributions of current and improved performances)
  • Estimate the savings in dollars

Level II: Team Presentation
This is more detailed presentation for your project team members and all others interested in the project:

  • Show details of factor influences, ANOVA, and optimum condition
  • Explain how optimum is determined
  • Discuss how different evaluation criteria affected your decision about optimum condition
  • Share your plan for confirmation and future studies

Level III: Technical Session
Share with interested parties all issues related to experiment setup, data collection & reduction, interaction studies, noise effects, etc.